Cybercrime, often known as hacking, is the act of attempting to obtain access to private or company information by exploiting security flaws in a network or information processing system.
Computers are required to operate a profitable business, and even isolating a computer system is not sufficient protection. To communicate with one another, they must be linked to other companies.
Consequently, they are exposed to hacking and the rest of the outside world. Someone who uses a computer to perpetrate criminal crimes such as fraud, invasion of privacy, or stealing commercial or personal information is known as a system hacker.
Every year, cybercrime causes a vast amount of financial damage to many businesses, and businesses are compelled to take preventive measures against these types of attacks.
For example, hackers will not recreate the wheel unless it is essential when attempting to attack an organization: for example, several well-known hacking techniques, including malware, phishing, and cross-site scripting, will be used by them (XSS).
Understanding the many attack vectors that a malicious actor might use to create harm is critical, whether you’re trying to make sense of the latest data breach story or looking into an incident that occurred within your own organization.
Types of Hacking - 14 Ways a Hacker Can Cause Unrepairable Damage
Why one should be familiar with various types of hacking?
The answer is straightforward, we all live in a digitally connected world and have valuable information stored somewhere online.
To protect that information, we need to familiarize with what to do and what not to, as hackers can get in from anywhere cause unrepairable damage via hacking.
Here are 14 ways a hacker can infiltrate your system without you knowing about it.
If you’ve ever had an antivirus alert pop up on your computer or unintentionally clicked a dangerous email attachment, you’ve come into contact with malware.
Because malware is so powerful, attackers prefer to use it to infiltrate people’s computers and, as a result, their workplaces.
Malware comes in numerous forms, including viruses and ransomware.
Malware on your computer can do a range of things, including:
- Hijacking your computer
- Spying on your activities and keystrokes
- Transmitting sensitive information to the attacker’s home base without your knowledge.
Malware can infiltrate your computer in various methods, but the user is nearly always required to take action for it to be installed. When you open a seemingly secure attachment (such as a Word document or PDF attachment), it may include a malware installer. Malware attacks are getting more prevalent.
To protect yourself from malware attacks you can try using a VPN embedded with an antivirus software like Surfshark. It is a 2 in 1 online protection suite software, helping you stay anonymous online while beating off all types of hacking attacks.
Naturally, you’re unlikely to click on a link in any email, let alone open an attachment, because you’d need a compelling reason to do so.
The attackers are well aware of this. Phishing is a systematic method used by attackers to deceive you into doing something you wouldn’t ordinarily do in the case of malware or sensitive information.
Because phishing assaults rely on human curiosity and impulses, they are difficult to thwart.
Emails that appear to be from reliable sources, such as your boss or the organization with which you do business, might be used in phishing attempts.
The email will look genuine, with a sense of urgency (e.g., fraudulent activity has been detected on your account).
The email will contain an attachment or a link, and your machine will be infected with malware if you open the malicious attachment.
When you click the link, you may be directed to a website that appears to be legitimate, but it is a trap put up by hackers to steal your passwords when you attempt to log in.
Understanding the importance of verifying email senders and attachments/links is essential for avoiding phishing attempts.
3. SQL Server Virus Infection
SQL is a computer language for interacting with databases, and it stands for Structured Query Language.
SQL is widely used to administer databases on servers that store critical data for websites and services.
A SQL injection attack can gain access to data that would usually be kept private using malicious code.
An attacker may be interested in a server that houses private client information from a website, such as:
- Credit card numbers
- Passwords (credentials)
- Other personally identifiable information.
A SQL injection attack can be used to run malicious code on the SQL server by exploiting any of the known SQL vulnerabilities.
An attacker might enter code into a website’s search box to force the site’s SQL server to reveal all the site’s stored usernames and passwords.
4. CSS Stands For Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
An SQL injection attack attempts to steal sensitive information from a vulnerable website, such as passwords or bank account information.
Cross-site scripting assaults, on the other hand, might be employed by attackers who want to target the users of a website specifically. This attack is similar to a SQL injection attack, except that the malicious code injection does not target the website itself.
An attacker’s malware is only activated when a user visits a website infected by it, and it affects the user’s browser rather than the website itself.
One of the most common ways for an attacker to carry out a cross-site scripting attack is to inject malicious code into comments or scripts that can be automatically performed.
Cross-site scripting attacks can significantly harm a website’s reputation since they can put users’ personal information at risk without their awareness.
As long as the user’s passwords, credit card information, or other private data are sent to the site via cross-site scripting, the site’s owners may be unaware that they have been compromised in the first place.
5. Denial-of-Service Attack (DoS)
Consider yourself stuck in traffic, with cars backed up as far as the eye can see. Because a county fair and a major athletic event are both wrapping up simultaneously, this route is the only way for tourists to exit town.
Because of the high volume of internet traffic, the road becomes so crowded that no one can go.
Denial-of-service (DoS) assaults render websites inaccessible to their users.
Websites that receive more traffic than they can handle will become almost unusable for anyone attempting to access their content if they are swamped with traffic exceeding their server’s capacity.
Innocent circumstances, such as when a significant news story breaks and a newspaper’s website is inundated with traffic from eager readers, can also result in this type of difficulty.
This form of traffic overload is typically malicious, as an attacker floods a website with a massive amount of traffic, essentially shutting it down for all clients.
Many machines occasionally carry out DoS assaults at the same time. In this situation, it is referred to as a Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack.
When an attacker presents attacks from many IP addresses around the world simultaneously, network administrators have an even more difficult time determining the source of an attack.
6. Cracking Password
You need a good dictionary file and you can use the wordlist command to do this.
This will allow you to try every word in your dictionary file as a password, which means that if someone has recently used their pet’s name or favorite food as a password, you can try those out too!
If you don’t have access to one of these lists already, there are many available online, including:
- Rockyou Passwords (https://tinyurl.com/rockyou)
- Dictionary Attacker (https://tinyurl.com/dictionaryattacker)
Malware injection is a technique used to infiltrate a computer system or a network of computers without any knowledge of the user. Malware is a general term for malicious software.
Malware can be used to steal data, damage or destroy files and systems, and gain access to private information.
In order to infect your computer with malware, an attacker must first gain access to your machine.
The method they use depends on what level of access you have given them in order for them to install their software (e.g., if you are running as an administrator).
Once they have gained entry into your machine, the attacker then installs their own code which will carry out whatever tasks they wish it do—for example capturing keystrokes so that passwords can be obtained later from memory dumps collected at pre-determined intervals (known as keylogging).
8. Missing Security Patches
Missing security patches are one of the most common ways hackers gain access to your data.
A hacker could exploit vulnerabilities in your software, like Adobe Flash Player, or Windows Updates and gain access to your computer. This can happen even if you’re not an employee at the company being targeted and don’t have access to sensitive data.
9. Social Engineering
Social engineering, also known as psychological hacking or human-based attack, is a non-technical hacking technique that relies on human interaction to gather information.
It is a form of confidence trick for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or system access.
The attacker is trying to manipulate one or more people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.
Social engineering attacks can occur in many ways:
- At work: An employee may be tricked into revealing sensitive proprietary company data
- On the phone: An attacker calls pretending to be someone from technical support and convinces you to install malware on your computer (a Trojan horse) while they are “fixing” it
- In person at an ATM: If someone knows how to type PINs using both hands at once, they could simply copy down your PIN numbers as you enter them; alternatively they could pretend that their card won’t work and ask if you would mind helping them out.
10. DNS Spoofing
DNS spoofing is a form of attack where the attacker misdirects the DNS servers by sending false information to the DNS servers.
However, in this case, it is not possible for an external attacker to take over your website or server because all of this happens on your own computer.
The attacker tricks your computer into thinking that it is communicating with a legitimate server when in fact it isn’t talking to any server at all!
11. Distributed Denial-of-service(DDoS)
Distributed Denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks are designed to cause a website to slow down or stop working. DDoS attacks can be launched by a single computer or by many computers.
12. Cookie theft
Cookie theft, also known as cookie hijacking, is a type of cross-site scripting attack where the hacker steals cookies from the target computer.
Cookies are files that store information about your browser and how it reacts to websites you visit.
They’re used to keeping track of user sessions, such as what items are in your shopping cart at an online store or which articles you’ve read on a news website. Cookies can also be used for advertising purposes.
The most common type of cookie is set by a website’s server when someone visits it for the first time (and also every time they revisit).
This kind of hacking occurs when an attacker uses malware on their own website to steal those credentials when visitors land on their site by clicking an infected link or opening an infected email attachment.
It’s similar to other types of browser hijacking attacks—though with this one, hackers aren’t necessarily trying to take over your entire machine or steal sensitive data—they just want access so they can sell ads against them later on!
13. UI Redress
UI redress is a type of attack that exploits the user interface (UI) of an application. The attacker can use a combination of social engineering and web application vulnerabilities to exploit the UI redress attack.
The attacker will go through each step in the UI redress process until they gain access to sensitive information or other resources on your system.
This can include anything from stealing your password, installing malware onto your computer, or hijacking your session by changing your account profile information.
A virus is a program that is designed to replicate itself. It can infect a computer, disk, or file. In fact, it’s not even necessary for you to open an infected file or click on an infected link for the virus to replicate—all it needs is access to your system and enough time.
Viruses are often used as part of other attacks, such as DDoS (distributed denial of service) attacks that flood targets with traffic in order to bring down their servers.
What exactly is a "Hacker"?
“A hacker is someone who finds and exploits loopholes in the systems and networks to get access. Hackers are usually knowledgeable about computer programming and security issues.”
Types of Hackers
The intent of a hacker’s actions is used to categorize it. The following hacker types may be categorized based on their stated goals:
1. White Hat Hackers
This is a word used to describe a hacker who attempts to improve a system’s security by exploiting loopholes. They also offer penetration testing and vulnerability assessments.
2. Black Hat Hacker
Computer hackers who breach computer systems for personal gain are called “crackers” or “black hats.” Hackers frequently target company data, personal information, bank accounts, and other financial organizations.
3. Gray Hat Hackers
A gray hat hacker is one who is neither ethical nor black hat. They gain unauthorized access to computers to discover and reveal security holes.
4. Green Hat Hackers
Green hat hackers are those who are just getting their feet wet in the world of hacking and cybercrime. They are different from the Script Kiddies in that they were created with a specific goal in mind rather than just for fun.
Aspiring hackers are encouraged to participate in this course in order to sharpen their skills. Those that are more experienced in hacking desire to learn from those less experienced.
4. Blue Hat Hackers
Blue Hat Hackers are a kind of hacker that works in the information security field.
Script Kiddies and Blue Hat Hackers are both sorts of hackers that operate in the open source community.
They utilise hacking as a tool to draw the attention of people to their cause. As a form of retribution, they resort to hacking systems.
It is not their technical proficiency that makes Blue Hat Hackers dangerous, but rather it is their drive that makes them so.
5. Red Hat Hackers
Red Hat Hackers are hackers who make use of the Red Hat Linux Eagle-Eye Hackers to perform their attacks. This group of people is known as hackers in the same manner as white hackers are known.
The goal of the red hat hackers is to prevent the black hat hackers from launching an assault against the red hat hackers.
In terms of hacking techniques, the only difference between red and white hat hackers is that they both hack in the same manner. When it comes to dealing with black hat hackers or combatting viruses, red hat hackers are ruthless and ruthless.
The red hat hackers are continuing at work, and it is possible that the whole system may have to be replaced.
To carry out the attack, malware must be installed on multiple computers which will then be told to send traffic to one website at the same time.
This overloads the server and makes it unable to handle legitimate requests for data from any user until the attackers stop sending their malicious data packets.
History Of The Hackers
Hacking was initially used as a phrase in the 1970s, but it gained popularity during the following decade. In a 1980 issue of Psychology Today, an article titled "The Hacker Papers" explored the addictive aspect of computer use.
Two years later, two films, Tron and WarGames, were produced in which the principal characters attempted to hack into computer networks, introducing the notion of hacking to a broad public and as a possible national security danger.
Later that year, a gang of youngsters broke into large businesses' computer networks, including Los Alamos National Laboratory, Security Pacific Bank, and Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. A Newsweek storey on the incident was the first to use the term "hacker" in the negative context that it currently has.
This incident also prompted Congress to approve various computer-crime-related legislation, although it did not reduce the frequency of high-profile assaults on business and government networks.
Of course, the notion of hacking has grown exponentially since the public internet's introduction, which has resulted in considerably more opportunities and more significant incentives for hacking activities.
This caused tactics to grow and become more sophisticated, giving rise to a diverse spectrum of sorts of hacking and hackers.
Smart Devices Are the Most Vulnerable to Hacking
Smartphones and other smart gadgets are attractive targets for hackers. Android smartphones, in particular, have a more open-source and uneven software development process than Apple devices, making them vulnerable to data theft or corruption.
However, hackers are increasingly targeting the millions of Internet of Things-connected gadgets (IoT).
Webcams embedded into computers are a popular hacking target, owing to the ease with which they may be compromised.
Hackers generally acquire access to a computer via the use of a Remote Access Trojan (RAT) or rootkit software, which enables them to not only spy on users but also read their messages, monitor their browser activities, take screenshots, and hijack their camera.
An attacker may acquire access to data delivered and received via routers as well as networks accessible through them by hacking them. Hackers may also use a router to carry out larger nefarious activities like distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, DNS spoofing, or cryptomining.
Email is one of the most popular targets for cyberattacks. It is used to distribute malware and ransomware, as well as as a phishing attack strategy, allowing attackers to target users with dangerous files or links.
3. Jailbroken Cell Phones
Jailbreaking a phone entails eliminating limitations placed on its operating system, allowing the user to install programmes or other software not accessible via the phone’s official app store.
Jailbreaking exposes various vulnerabilities in addition to being a breach of the end-licensing user’s agreement with the phone developer.
Hackers may target jailbroken phones to steal any data on the device while also extending their assault to associated networks and systems.
How to Avoid Being Hacked | Preventive Measures
There are a number of critical measures and best practises that organisations and people may do to reduce their risks of being hacked.
1. Update Software
Hackers are continually on the hunt for security flaws that have yet to be discovered or addressed. As a result, keeping software and operating systems up to date is critical for keeping people and companies safe from hackers.
They must allow automatic updates and ensure that all of their devices and apps always have the most recent software version installed.
2. Use different passwords for each account
The most prevalent source of data leaks and cyberattacks is weak passwords or account credentials, as well as improper password habits. It is critical to choose strong passwords that are difficult for hackers to break, as well as to never use the same password for many accounts.
Using unique passwords is critical for decreasing the efficacy of hackers.
3. Encryption over HTTPS
Another popular method of data theft is spoofing websites, which occurs when hackers establish a fake website that seems authentic but actually steals the credentials that visitors submit. Look for the Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) prefix at the beginning of a site URL.
For instance, https://www.fortinet.com.
4. Avoid clicking on advertisements or strange links
Hackers also make extensive use of advertisements such as pop-up adverts.
When they are clicked, they unwittingly download malware or spyware onto the user’s device. Links should be handled with caution, and unusual links inside email messages or on social media, in particular, should never be clicked.
Hackers may use these to put malware on a device or to redirect visitors to faked websites.
5. Change the Default Password and Username on Your Router and Smart Devices
Routers and smart gadgets come with pre-programmed usernames and passwords.
However, since suppliers ship millions of devices, there is a danger that the credentials are not unique, increasing the likelihood of hackers hacking into them.
For these sorts of devices, it is advisable to utilise a unique username and password combination.
Best VPNs for Hacking
NordVPN is definitely one of the best VPNs for Hacking. If you are looking for a quick way on which VPN services help in hacking,
TechNinjaPro has rounded up its top recommendations below.
Take Steps to Protect Yourself From Hacking
In order to defend themselves against the threat of hacking, users and organisations may wish to take additional safeguards.
1. Downloading from Unofficial Websites
Please only download programmes or software from trustworthy firms and third-party websites.
When users obtain data from unknown sources, they may not be able to comprehend what they are watching, and the application may be infected with malware, viruses, or Trojan horses.
2. Install and configure antivirus software
In order to detect potentially dangerous files, activity, and criminal actors, it is necessary that antivirus software be installed on computers and mobile devices.
When people and companies use a reputable antivirus product, they are protected against the most recent malware threats such as spyware and viruses, and it employs strong detection engines to discover and block new and emerging threats from gaining entry.
3. Make advantage of a virtual private network (VPN)
A virtual private network (VPN) allows users to connect to the internet in a secure manner (VPN).
It keeps their location secret and prevents hackers from listening in on their data or monitoring their browsing behaviour.
As a general rule, you should avoid logging in as the administrator.
"Admin" is a popular username among IT departments, and hackers take advantage of this fact to launch attacks against businesses. Signing in using this name makes you a hacker's target, therefore avoid doing so by default if at all possible.
4. Make use of a password manager to keep track of your passwords
It is suggested that you create strong, unique passwords for your computer’s security, but remembering them might be difficult.
Using a password manager can be extremely beneficial for users who want to use strong, difficult-to-crack passwords but don’t want to deal with the hassle of remembering them all the time.
5. Make use of two-factor authentication whenever possible
Passwords are no longer required, and two-factor authentication (also known as 2FA) enhances the possibility that the person attempting to access an account is who they claim to be.
A user is asked to provide additional identifying verification while signing into their account, such as their fingerprint or a code texted to their smartphone.
6. Anti-phishing techniques should be practised
Users must be informed of the tactics employed by hackers in order to target and infiltrate their systems.
For anti phishing and ransomware technologies, this is especially important because they assist users in recognizing the telltale indications of a phishing email or a ransomware attack.
Attacks with a Man-in-the-Middle and Session Hijacking
When your computer tries to identify itself and request specific websites or services, it engages in a series of small back-and-forth transactions with servers all over the world.
If everything goes as planned, the web servers should respond to your request by giving you the information you’re looking for.
This procedure, or session, occurs whether you are simply surfing or joining a website with your login and password.
An attacker who obtains your computer’s session ID and claims to be the one making the request can log in as an unsuspecting user and gain access to illegal material on the web server, which is why it’s critical to keep your session ID private.
Session IDs can be hijacked using cross-site scripting attacks.
Furthermore, an attacker may choose to take control of the session to pose as a remote server user, obtaining access to sensitive information. They can intercept information in both directions via a man-in-the-middle assault.
There are so many passwords to remember for today’s users that it’s tempting to use the same password for many sites.
Despite security best practices, many users reusing their passwords gives attackers a significant advantage.
Attackers are aware that if they gain access to the usernames and passwords of a hacked site or service, they can use the same credentials to log in to other websites (which can be easily obtained on any number of black market websites). Whatever the desire to reuse passwords across many accounts, you should resist because your favorite sports forum could be hacked, giving an attacker access to your email and bank account.
You must have a diverse set of credentials, and Password managers may help keep track of all the passwords you use.
These are some of the most popular types of assaults and approaches that are used today.
Even though this is not an entire list, but major types of cyberattacks are happening today.
This information will prove helpful if you want to improve the overall security posture of your organization.
Computer hacking is the act of modifying computer hardware and software to achieve a goal that is contrary to the computer's creator's original intent. Hacking is the art of detecting and exploiting software or hardware flaws. Some hackers think the term "hacker" is disparaging because it has long been used to describe someone who is unreliable and neglects their needs.
As a computer security specialist, a White Hat Hacker specialises in penetration testing and other testing techniques to ensure that a company's information systems are secure. Companies hire professionals known to as Sneakers.
To safeguard your PC, you only need a basic awareness of computer security and related topics like virus, Trojan, spyware, phishing, etc. Set up a firewall and an antivirus.